1. Direction (1-6): Read the passage carefully then answer the questions given below.
People have long circulated news via word-of-mouth, and as language evolved into writing and literacy –
and governments played larger roles in people’s lives – sharing information became a necessity. However,
disseminating news and information on paper presented significant challenges. When each copy had to
be handwritten, mass distribution was impossible. They were first chiseled in stone or metal; later, they
were handwritten and distributed in public forums or read from scrolls by town criers. Though both
ancient Romans and Chinese – as well as other ancient civilizations – had early forms of news media, they
do not qualify as newspapers because they could not be mass-distributed.
The first true newspapers arrived after Johannes Gutenberg introduced his movable type printing press to
the European world around 1440. Though printing presses with movable type had existed in eastern Asia
for around two centuries, they never made it to Europe; furthermore, Gutenberg’s version made it
significantly faster to mass produce documents. By 1500, the printing press had made its way throughout
Europe, and news sheets (or news books) were mass-distributed.
The first weekly newspaper was published in Germany by Johann Carolus in 1604. Called Relation aller
Fürnemmen und gedenckwürdigen Historien, the publication satisfied the four tenets of a “true”
newspaper: Accessibility by the public , Published at a regular interval (daily, weekly, monthly, etc.)
,Information is current ,Covers a variety of topics (politics, events, entertainment, sports, etc.) Despite
meeting the requirements for a newspaper, there is some debate as to whether The Relation qualifies as
the world’s first newspaper since it was printed in quarto, not folio, size. It’s worth noting the World
Association of Newspapers considers The Relation the first true newspaper.’
Other German newspapers followed, and in 1618 the world’s first broadsheet newspaper printed in folio
size was published in Amsterdam, called Courante uyt Italien, Duytslandt, &c. The newspaper format soon
spread throughout Europe, with newspapers published in Spain, France, and Sweden. The first English
newspaper was published in 1665 in Oxford, England. Known as the Oxford Gazette, the newspaper moved
to London in 1666 and was renamed the London Gazette. It’s still being published today. Soon after, the
newspaper became a staple in all major European countries. It then made its way to the New World.
(THIS IS THE EXACT PASSAGE THAT WAS ASKED IN THE 1ST SHIFT)
Q1. Which of the following options is satisfying the condition for being a tenant of a “true